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Theory and Practise of Wide Bandwidth Toroidal Output Transformers

Menno Van Der Veen

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The frequency range and time behavior of output transformers, used in tube amplifiers, are determined by the transformer parameters and the impedances of the source and the load. A general theory will be discussed on how to calculate the frequency range and time behavior of output transformers in conjunction with output tubes and loads. A new Frequency Decade Factor will be introduced and compared to the well-known transformer Quality Factor, taking the influences of different source and load impedances into account. A new toroidal output transformer with a -3dB bandwidth from .3Hz to 250kHz will be discussed.